The article 370 has given the status of an autonomous state to Jammu and Kashmir. The article has been drafter under the part XXI of the Constitution that states Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions. This article was worked out in the year 1947, between Sheikh Abdullah, appointed then as the prime minister of J&K by Nehru as well as the Maharaja. He kept the Kashmir portfolio to himself. Sheikh Abdullah was driven by the desire to become the king and his hatred for the maharaja then persuaded Nehru to provide Special status and even Mountbatten was the one to pursue Nehru to take the issue to UN.
The article has the following provisions –
- The provision grants special autonomy to Jammu and Kashmir
- The provisions of article 238 that got omitted in 1956 from the constitution are not applicable to Jammu & Kashmir.
- Even B R Ambekar who was the man behind drafting the constitution refused to draft article 370 and was done by Gopalswami Ayaangar, a minister without portfolio and x Diwan of Hari Singh, kind of Kashmir, eventually
- The article 370 has been drafted under temporary and transitional provisions of the Amendment section of part XXI, section
- The article 370 does not allow and increase or decrease in the borders of the state
It is known to be the biggest impediment in integrating J&K with Indian Union. The Veto power on laws lies with the Jammu & Kashmir Authority even if the Government makes laws with the state government. A J&K can have two citizenships, one of J&K and one of India. This privilege is not given to Indian citizens otherwise. An outsider is not allowed to buy any property in J & K state and the defection law is also not applicable to this state. Other laws like intermarriage with other state person, Urban Land Ceiling, Wealth tax and Gift Tax aren’t operating in J&K state. J&K has the power to refuse use of land of defense cantonments or allocation of land for defense purposes.
Apparently, article 370 is a temporary provision and can be abrogated. The topic has been a hot topic for debate in India after the Pulwana terror attack that killed over 40 Indian Soldiers.
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The Hindu Marriage act has been created with the intention to secure the rights of the bride and groom who are Hindu by religion and are tied into a sacred bond through marriage ceremony. Though there is not definition for the ceremony as such. The act is applicable for people of Hindu, Sikh, Jain and Buddhist religions.
The components of the Hindu marriage law are spread across different sections of the act. Here’s a run-down some of the common and important sections under the Hindu marriage law 1955.
Section 5 of the Hindu Marriage act, 1955 – The marriage is considered lawful if the bride is 18 years or above and the groom is 21 years or above at the time of the marriage.
Section 6 of the Hindu Marriage act, 1955 – This sections has the provision for legitimacy of children born out of this alliance and can be later declared as void or voidable.
Section 8 of the Hindu marriage act, 1955 – The marriage can be registered under this act.
Section 9 of the Hindu Marriage act, 1955 – This has the provision for restitution of the conjugal rights of a husband as well as a wife who are bound together under the act.
Section 15 of the Hindu marriage act, 1955 – This act says that once divorced both of them are eligible to remarry.
Section 24 of the Hindu marriage act, 1955 – This act has the provision for maintenance pendent lite as well as for expenses of the divorce proceedings.
Section 25 of the Hindu marriage act, 1955 – The section 25 of the Hindu Marriage act is for provision of maintenance pendant lite as well as for the legal divorce proceedings expenditure.
Section 26 of the Hindu marriage act, 1955 – The section is about custody, maintenance as well as education of minor children during as well as after legal proceedings of divorce.
The Hindu marriage act is a provision made by the government of India to keep the sanctity of marriage in place and not let anyone take any undue disadvantage of the pious institution.
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The budget is out and Piyush Goyal has definitely tried to woo the Indian middle class with his budget line, particularly the income tax slab. We all know that below 5 lacs the middle income group had to pay an income tax slab of 5 % tax. This years the grass is even greener because now uptil 5 lacs, you are not required to pay any tax. Furthermore, if your income is 6.5 lacs you might as well do a fixed deposit of 1. 5 lacs which will not be applicable for tax.
Again, the government presented the interim budget this year. This budget is usually presented in the final year of the government’s tenure. Yes, this does have a catch. Once the new government comes into force, the approval of this budget is required from the new government. It’s for the new government to decide to make a few changes in the budget of change it entirely.
Nonetheless, the burden for the tax payers has definitely eased with the tax slab being increased. There is news for the farmers too and includes a yearly money transfer of 6000 for small farmers under the Kisaan scheme. It will be done in three installments of 2000 each. For government employees the tax free gratuity limit has been increased from 10 lakhs to 20 lakhs. For mothers, the government has introduced the Pradhan Mantri Matritva Yojna and 26 weeks of Maternity leave for working women. The tax on daily used items now remains within 0-5 % tax slab. The government has also announce no tax on interest of 40,000 on FDs.
The government has also announced pension scheme for house maids wherein they need to start putting 100 Rs. per month from the age of 29 and they get a monthly pension of 3000 after 60 years of age under the Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Mandhan and people working in the unorganized sectors. The rest of the money will be contributed by the government. The scheme is all set to begin this year.
Well, there is quite some good news it seems with the budget this year, particularly for the middle income groups. But, it needs to be seen if after the election this budget gets approval of the elected government because then only it will hold true.
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Many aspiring students today are willing to make their career in law. Why not? Law is also one of the booming careers today. Today law is not a profession or legacy carried forth by the generation of lawyer family members but even others are foraying into the area due to the lucrative offers worldwide. Today it’s not just criminal and civil law areas and the courts where people get work opportunities. The horizons are broadened and many corporate giants. These days you also get to study integrated law course like BA LLB, BCOM LLB and BBA LLB other than regular law courses like LLB and LLM.
Doing an integrated course like BCOM LLB can help you streamline your career in the direction of your choice and even scope of work. If you are a finance person and you want to take up law then doing law in commerce can help you a lot. More ever an integrated course can help you get two degrees at one go, one in business and the other in law.
The admission process for BCOM LLB needs you to undergo a national level common entrance exam. There are government as well as state level colleges that conduct common entrance exams. Once to clear the CLAT and LSAT entrance exam, you can get admission to the course.
This course is of 5 years and also requires you to complete an internship program of 20 weeks during their course of study. The career for graduates pursuing BCOM LLB course includes lot of areas like Indian civil services, corporate law, legal advisors in MNCS and banks, criminal practice, income tax, CA firms and more.
These days career options like writing for law are also very much in and hence if you are the one who loves writing then you might as well opt for legal writing.
Once you complete your course and are willing to do practice of your own, you need to obtain the certificate of practice in law. To obtain the certificate you need to appear for the All India Bar Examination (AIBE) which is organized and regulated by the Bar council of India.
If you are looking to get into teaching than you may opt for LLM course as well and PhD after that.
It’s only that you need to look for a good college that can make you not only a graduate but an industry ready professional by providing the right education and training.
For more information about BCOM LLB Admissions in Bangalore