Gone are the days when satellite TV’s were ruling the Indian TV industry. Now, are the times of internet based channels like Netflix, Hotstar, Amazon Prime video and more, known as the Over-the-top (OTT) services. Being an internet based service they can be accessed anywhere and anytime on devices like smartphones and tablets too other than smart TVS, desktops and laptops. These services are known as over the top because the service does not need you to subscribe to a traditional cable channel besides providing the liberty to choose whatever they want to watch as per their choice and time. A hardware device, an internet connection, download the app, get the subscription plan and you are on.
Over the top Service (OTT) types
Well, on one side it’s getting convenient for viewers to watch anything they want anytime, there’s a flipside to it too. The content could be unsuitable for viewers of a certain age group particularly under age audience. So, the topic to regulate the content is of vital importance and needs to be looked at, with keen interest, more so. The types of over the top services include –
Ad supported video on demand (AVOD) – A free service it gets its revenue from the ads it broadcasts along with video content.
Subscription based video on demand (SVOD) – This is a paid service where you can access a whole library of video by paying a fixed amount on a daily, weekly or monthly basis.
Transactional video on demand (TVOD) – This is a pay per view service and needs no subscription.
With the advent of these services, it won’t be a surprise if you find people hooked to their smart phones or tablets while having lunch break or commuting on a bus or a metro. Another vital aspect of it is that the content that is broadcasted is not scrutinized and is uncertified, vulgar, pornographic, legally restricted and at times sexually explicit as well. There have been PILs / petitions against shows like Game or Thrones and Sacred Games about objectifying women as well and requesting to frame guidelines for the same. One such petition was dismissed by the Delhi high-court stating that it could not frame any guidelines because there were stringent provisions vide the information technology act, 2000 already in place. When the petition was taken to the Supreme court, it has issued notice to the center in order to regulate the content on OTT platforms dated May 5, 2019. Well, this means that it will take some time for the OTT content to get regulated.
*Sourced from the Internet
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There is a lot of unawareness around ancestral property rights amongst us. A reason is ignorance and even amendments in the law. One of the many questions that are commonly asked around ancestral property laws that people keep pondering upon or enquiring from friends and acquaintances is about women’s share in ancestral property. Here’s run down five facts around ancestral property rights you need to know and around daughter’s share as well –
Ancestral property means the property that is inherited up to four generations. As in from father to great great grandfather.
The right to ancestral property is considered to be based on birth and not after the death of the owner.
The ancestral character is not considered if the partition or division of the property is already done through a deed or mutual basis within the family.
The division of the property is done not on the basis of per capita but on the basis of per stripe. First the share of each generation is determined. Later the subdivision is done for the remaining generations. Also, every generation does inherit from its predecessor.
Will and gift based properties are not included in ancestral properties.
If a father gifts a property to son, it is not included under ancestral properties.
If a self-acquired property is used in common it can be included under ancestral properties.
But, if the father wants to disinherit his son from a self-acquired property within the ancestral property, he can do so but the son still has rights over ancestral property
Before 2005, only sons had rights to ancestral property. But, in 2005 the Supreme court amended the law providing rights to a daughter whether married or not, in ancestral property. The court later clarified that if the father has died before the amendment of the Hindu law in 2005, the daughter does not have any right to ancestral property.
Well, theses day women are becoming more and more aware of their rights but even today there are many women and even people who aren’t really aware about ancestral rights or have a lot of queries around the same. The aforementioned are a few facts that might just help you clear some of your doubts around the same.
*Sourced from the Internet
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The chief general manager of state run PEC limited was denied the renewal of his past as he was charged by the CBI for offenses under the IPC section 420 as well as section 13 of the corruption act after the CBI had filed an FIR against him and his PSU under the ministry of Commerce and Industry for cheating of over 530 crores.
When the advocate of the client applied for an NOC for Passport renewal, the PEC limited refused it citing the office memorandum of Aug 28, 2018, that the Ministry of Public grievance and Pension, Personnel, Department of Personnel and Training, stating that in case of any pending disciplinary proceedings, the vigilance clearance as well as the NOC certificate required by a public servant for issuing or renewing passport can be withheld ordinarily.
The Advocate of the person in concern had challenged two office memorandums issued by PEC limited that declined his client’s passport renewal request. The report that the PEC as well as the passport office submitted for denial was under the Section (6) (2) (f) of the 1967 Passports Act. It states that the passport office can deny the renewal of passport to the applicant who is under-going court proceedings before a criminal court of India. The PEC limited counsel further contented on the order of the special judge which was conditional and did permit passport issuance only if it is allowed under the relevant passport rules.
The court noted that the PEC did not bring forth any other other rule other than Section (6)(2)(f) and 10 of Act that would prevent the applicant from getting his passport renewed and that the criminal court in concern did approve his passport renewal.
Justice Bakhru further added “The reliance on Section 10 of the Act is ex facie misplaced, since it pertains only to impounding and revocation of passports and travel documents”. The court directed that if the petitioner submits an application for passport renewal, it would be processed for a period of two years but there is this condition where the petition submits an undertaking to respondent no 5 that he would appear before the court whenever required during the issued passports continuance.
*Sourced from the Internet
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Though if one has to wish for something related to court proceedings, one would rather wish of staying away from getting into the same, due to its time and money consuming repute. But, when you have to you have to, there is no way else where or out. So, why not be aware about the court and its hierarchy. The first step here begins at the judicial body, village courts, the district court, going up to the high and finally the supreme court.
Village Courts or Panchayats
Better known as gram, lok or nyay panchayats, these courts are set up at village level to resolve disputes arising in villages or rural areas.
These courts are for the urban populace. People at town or city levels can knock their door to seek justice or resolve their dispute. It has a district judge and is supported by many subordinate courts. Every district does have separate courts for labour and families as well as special courts that deal with narcotic drugs, substances act falling under essential commodities.
Every state has their own high court and its generally situated in the capital of the respective state. Many states also have bench courts which refers to high court branches. In the same way, union territories have high court benches of the nearby state. The high court comes into action only if the lower courts cannot hold a trial due to territorial and pecuniary jurisdiction issues.
This is the highest of all the courts in hierarchy and stands at the top. The powers it has form original advisory jurisdiction and appellate powers. There is also a facility for citizens to directly file a suit with the supreme court in case of fundamental rights violation. At times even the President of India asks advisory jurisdiction for advise on certain issues. Supreme court judgments and laws are to be abide by every court in the hierarchy of India.
Some of us aren’t aware about the difference between tribunals and courts. Tribunals and courts are totally different bodies though they work in parallel and tribunals are not a part of the court hierarchy. Apparently, the hierarchy is forms on the basis of the constitutional structure and the reason behind its formation is to ably handle the mammoth population of the country and its problems and issues in a streamlined manner.
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