Article 370 – All You Need To Know

The article 370 has given the status of an autonomous state to Jammu and Kashmir. The article has been drafter under the part XXI of the Constitution that states Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions. This article was worked out in the year 1947, between Sheikh Abdullah, appointed then as the prime minister of J&K by Nehru as well as the Maharaja. He kept the Kashmir portfolio to himself. Sheikh Abdullah was driven by the desire to become the king and his hatred for the maharaja then persuaded Nehru to provide Special status and even Mountbatten was the one to pursue Nehru to take the issue to UN.

article 370

The article has the following provisions –

  • The provision grants special autonomy to Jammu and Kashmir
  • The provisions of article 238 that got omitted in 1956 from the constitution are not applicable to Jammu & Kashmir.
  • Even B R Ambekar who was the man behind drafting the constitution refused to draft article 370 and was done by Gopalswami Ayaangar, a minister without portfolio and x Diwan of Hari Singh, kind of Kashmir, eventually
  • The article 370 has been drafted under temporary and transitional provisions of the Amendment section of part XXI, section
  • The article 370 does not allow and increase or decrease in the borders of the state

It is known to be the biggest impediment in integrating J&K with Indian Union. The Veto power on laws lies with the Jammu & Kashmir Authority even if the Government makes laws with the state government. A J&K can have two citizenships, one of J&K and one of India. This privilege is not given to Indian citizens otherwise. An outsider is not allowed to buy any property in J & K state and the defection law is also not applicable to this state. Other laws like intermarriage with other state person, Urban Land Ceiling, Wealth tax and Gift Tax aren’t operating in J&K state. J&K has the power to refuse use of land of defense cantonments or allocation of land for defense purposes.

Apparently, article 370 is a temporary provision and can be abrogated. The topic has been a hot topic for debate in India after the Pulwana terror attack that killed over 40 Indian Soldiers.

 

*Sourced from the Internet

How The Budget of 2019 Rings in Some Good News for Middle Income Groups

The budget is out and Piyush Goyal has definitely tried to woo the Indian middle class with his budget line, particularly the income tax slab. We all know that below 5 lacs the middle income group had to pay an income tax slab of 5 % tax. This years the grass is even greener because now uptil 5 lacs, you are not required to pay any tax. Furthermore, if your income is 6.5 lacs you might as well do a fixed deposit of 1. 5 lacs which will not be applicable for tax.

Budget 2019

Again, the government presented the interim budget this year. This budget is usually presented in the final year of the government’s tenure. Yes, this does have a catch. Once the new government comes into force, the approval of this budget is required from the new government. It’s for the new government to decide to make a few changes in the budget of change it entirely.

Nonetheless, the burden for the tax payers has definitely eased with the tax slab being increased. There is news for the farmers too and includes a yearly money transfer of 6000 for small farmers under the Kisaan scheme. It will be done in three installments of 2000 each. For government employees the tax free gratuity limit has been increased from 10 lakhs to 20 lakhs. For mothers, the government has introduced the Pradhan Mantri Matritva Yojna and 26 weeks of Maternity leave for working women. The tax on daily used items now remains within 0-5 % tax slab. The government has also announce no tax on interest of 40,000 on FDs.

The government has also announced pension scheme for house maids wherein they need to start putting 100 Rs. per month from the age of 29 and they get a monthly pension of 3000 after 60 years of age under the Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Mandhan and people working in the unorganized sectors. The rest of the money will be contributed by the government. The scheme is all set to begin this year.

Well, there is quite some good news it seems with the budget this year, particularly for the middle income groups. But, it needs to be seen if after the election this budget gets approval of the elected government because then only it will hold true.

 

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Contact for Law College Admissions 2019-2020

 

*Sourced from the Internet

 

Working with Law Firms – What you See vs what you Get

Most law graduates dream of getting placed in one of the top law firms in India for various reasons, the main being a big fat pay cheque. It is a big opportunity which enables you to work with big fishes like business tycoons, celebrities in the country and at times get media attention too. You get to have skyrocketing career and with that an elite lifestyle. On the flip side such law firms spread across the country come out with not more than 200 openings against the thousands that graduate every year from law firms. Furthermore, most of the jobs either go to the toppers from the best universities or relatives with contacts. So at the end of the day the idea of landing a high paying job in the top law firms in India is just like a mirage in the desert.

Top Law Firms in India

Reality Check
While students are curious and excited to work on big projects, with celebrities and head honchos in top law firms, the reality is quite different. As a beginner or an intern you don’t immediately get such big breaks. Initially it is only about doing filing work or proof reading documents or due diligence related tasks that you might land upon. Thus as a junior associate against your presumptions, what you do would be quite boring, actually.
Having said that, this is the case with most of the careers. The initial period is more of toiling. Also, as there is a lot of pressure after graduation to land a job into a top law firm and that tends to make students do stupid things.
So, are there really any pros there or only cons. Yes, off-course there are pros of getting to work with a top notch law firm and cons too. Here’s to list a few-

PROS

  • To be with the best, you need to give your best. So, here’s a place where you need to put your best to match their standards and class.
  • At such firms, you as a new graduate law students get to groom yourself, learn to dress, be on time and learn about communicating professionally which can be of great help in a later stage.
  • You get to work with the competent team and get to learn a lot about teamwork and from them as well.
  • Top law firms provide full service and hence you get a 360-degree learning experience on various fronts of law.

CONS

  • Work timings are one of the biggest cons in a law firm. There are no fixed timings and could land you home as late at past midnight. So, personal life might as well go for a toss when working with these firms.
  • Don’t always expect very well behaved seniors. Be ready for experiences where if you underperform as a young law associate, you are shown the door straight away. No wonder, attrition rates are so high in law firms.
  • Sitting for long hours in front of the computer can cause a lot of physical stress as a law firm job is a desk job.

Having said that, if you are competent enough with a willingness to work 24 x 7 then you could be the preferred one and climb the ladder of success faster in terms of roles and responsibilities as well as remuneration.

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*Sourced from the Internet

Justice System For Juvenile Offenders in India

Juvenile offenders are those Indian citizens who are not adults or are not above 18 years of Age. Many of them are subject of juvenile delinquency which is about committing crime on a regular basis or as a habit by these teenagers. Obviously, the law for adult criminals and those under 18 years of age is different in India and is governed by a lot of factors.

There is a juvenile justice board in India which looks into the juvenile offenders and decides on the course of action or punishment for them and there are certain protocols that need to be adhered to while dealing with cases that involve juvenile. Here’s a run down –

juvenile Offenders in India

1. When there is a police case or FIR filed or the police catch hold of a juvenile offender, he or she is to be kept under the charge of a special juvenile officer or child welfare officer, who is responsible for producing the child or teenager before the Juvenile justice Board.

2. To conclude on the course of action based on whether the offence or crime was petty or heinous one, an enquiry is carried out. The offense is petty or serious or heinous nature and the child is below 16 years of age, the board may decide on the following punishments considering the crime type –

a. Advice the child and let him or her go home
b. Ask the child to go through counselling
c. Fine the parents of the child
d. Ask the child to do community service
e. Release the child on probation subject to good conduct
f. Direct the child to live in special home for not more than three years

3. For crimes of heinous nature by children above 16 years the board can decide on a trial for the child as adult. But, the child cannot receive any life imprisonment or death sentence without any sort of release possibility.

There are observation or special homes for offenders where these offenders stay for a short time. But, the conditions in these homes are not as required according to many experts. There is a great need for this homes to provide educational activities and training to the kids living there, as the homes do not have any structured activity for them, it ultimately leads to no improvement. There’s this saying ‘an idle mind is a devils workshop’, so there is a dire need to carry out proper rehabilitation of juvenile offenders and building infrastructure where informal systems like voluntary organizations, families and communities are involved and the whole system is transparent enough, is when we can help the juvenile offenders learn a lesson and work towards living a better life once they are out.

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Supreme Court of India to Rethink on Decrimilization of Homosexuality

As we all are know, the supreme court has passed a law criminalizing gay sex, but here’s some good news for the LGBT community. The Supreme court recently decided to rethink their decision about the ban. The decision comes as a definite ray of hope for the community and was taken by the Supreme court on January 10, 2018 wherein the court declared about the re-examination of the Section 377 of IPC banning carnal intercourse against nature’s order with any man, animal or woman. This act is a punishable offence with as long as life time imprisonment punishment for the convicted. Since 16th Century by the British when India was amongst one of its colonies, is when the idea of criminalizing gay sex came into existence.

LGBT community

Though the Supreme courts decision has given the LGBT community a small bit of a reason to celebrate, there are already some representatives of India’s right wing who are all set to extinguish this little revolutionary spark. As per a known Parliamentarian’s opinion, nobody would have any issues with what they do within four walls of their respective homes but if they bring it, celebrate it or flaunt it publically like creating gay bars to attract partners, etc., it needs to be punished and hence the need of Section 377. While he has also made statements calling homosexuality as a genetic flaw, this sentiment seems to have full support of the Indian middle class. Many other known politicians and ministers have gone to extent of calling it a curable disorder and also claiming that homosexuality is against the law of nature and hence the LGBT community needs to be completely disenfranchised.

While fact of the matter is that we already have studies to prove that homosexuality is not something that has cropped up recently, but it has been there since centuries. The living proof is Mesolitic rock art that has depictions of same sex intimacy scenes and is on display already in natural history museums. There is already documented proof as well written around 2345-2181 BCE, depicting the homosexual relationship of Pharaoh Neferkare and his general Sisene. Another one from the 7th Century BCE is a poem depicting love between two females written by Greek poet Sappho.

Yet, the LGBT has been living under constant fear of illegal detention, money extortion, blackmail and harassment by the law enforcement bodies. Besides, they have always faced the brunt of discrimination, abuse and are labelled by many as people with mental condition.

Perhaps, the Supreme court is aware that time has come to make some necessary changes in the centuries old law system of India and work towards eradication of the shame and stigma related to an individual’s sexual identity and create an environment of respect, dignity and equality for this gender.

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Legal Guidelines Issued by Government About Police Encounter Investigations

Legal Guidelines Issued by Government About Police Encounter Investigations

Police encounters are commonly heard of in India and most of us are even aware about many cases that smell fishy as well. Even government as taken notice of some fake encounter cases that have come forward and hence issued certain guidelines that the police department needs to adhere to in order to streamline the whole procedure and for investigation convenience as well.
1. It is mandatory put information regarding any tip off regarding a criminal offense in some form or the other either in writing (case diary preferably) or electronically, by a higher authority. Though, it is not mandatory to reveal all the details about the information like location or suspect.
2. If an encounter occurs post the tip-off or intelligence information, then it is mandatory to file an immediate FIR as per the procedure described under section 158 and forward it to the court under section 157.
3. The police team of another police station or the CID has to investigate the encounter or incident under the supervision of senior officer or atleast an officer of the same cadre to that of the one involved in the encounter. The team will need to collect the following information from site as well.
a. Identify the victim and take color pictures of him/ her. | b. Collect and preserve evidence related material like blood stained clothes, earth, hair, threads, equipment, fibers and more.
b. Identify and collect details of witnesses on site including their name, contact, address and more. Write down their statements or record them on video/ audio. Also, take down the statements of the police personnel involved in the encounter and pictures, video or sketch of the scene. Note down the death time and the whole process of the encounter that resulted in the death of the criminal.
c. Send the untouched finger prints of the deceased for chemical analysis. Also, any other finger prints collected on site have to be sent as well.
d. Evidence like weapons, cartridges, bullets, cartridge cases and more need to be taken into custody and preserved. Gun shot residue tests as well as metal detection traces need to be carried out wherever applicable.
e. It is necessary to note down the cause of death of the deceased, whether it was a suicide, homicide, encounter, natural or accidental death.
f. Two doctors need to conduct the postmortem of the deceased in the district hospital and one of them must be the hospital head or incharge. It is mandatory to cover the process through videography and preserve it.
9. The encounter information needs to be immediately sent to the NHRC or state human rights commission as per the case. Though NHRC need not necessarily get involved unless there is some doubt about the investigation or the encounter’s authenticity.
10. If the victim is injured in the encounter, then immediate medical aid needs to be provided to the victim and his/her statement has to be recorded in front of the medical officer or the magistrate. A medical fitness certificate also needs to be acquired from the officer.
11. In all the cases, where the encounter has resulted into death or deaths, a magisterial inquiry becomes mandatory under section 176 and the report of the it has to be sent to the judicial magistrate under section 190.
12. In case of death, the immediate relative of the criminal/ victim must be informed immediately.
13. In case of death or deaths in an encounter, it is mandatory to send half yearly statements of the cases of police firing to NHRC by the DGP’s. The due date for the statements is set to January and July 14. The format for the statement needs to be as follows and wherever applicable documents of reports have to be attached.
1. Criminal case no.
2. Investigating agency
3. Date/ Place of death
4. Situation resulting to death
a. Self defense | b. unlawful assemble dispersal course | c. affecting arrest course
5. Facts about the incident in brief
6. Report from inquiry by senior officers/ magistrate
7. Information related to
a. Police personnel responsible for the death |b. Information on use of force, lawful action or not.
15. In case if the conclusion report show evidence of a fake or unlawful encounter amounting to offense under the IPC, then disciplinary action against the responsible officer needs to be taken promptly after immediate suspension.

* Disclaimer – Sourced from the internet. Verification required

Legal Education Reforms in India with respect to Globalization

Globalization has by far affected every stream of education and has led to reformation in the fields of higher education across the globe. Reformation in legal education being need of the hour as well, requires focus on making it even more flexible by giving more freedom to the legal education organizations and establishing law schools of international standards besides addressing fundamental issues related to legal education including necessary amendments and changes in the existing law education curriculum and methodologies. The academic standards need to be raised besides providing state of the art infrastructure and research facilities. It also includes providing a good governance model and better job opportunities to the passing out law students. Legal Education Reforms in India

Well, the challenges for reformation in legal education are big particularly when it comes to promotion of judicial and legal reforms. Apparently, for establishing a rule of law society, the lawyers and judges have to play a crucial role in the future, towards governance. It thus requires the law students in law schools to be imparted with quality training in the present. A re examination of each of them needs to carried out so that these future lawyers and judges sync in well with the undergoing socio-economic transformation.

The times when the focus of legal education institutions was on issues relating to India and Indian law only are long gone. Today, students are inquisitive and interested in studying international law as well as comparative law. Obviously, there is a dire need to make reformations in the existing legal education of Indian law through excellence in teaching and research but at the same time it is vital to focus on globalization challenges.

Keeping up with the need, even law schools today are shifting their focus on incorporating international law curriculum, with an objective of providing a fair mix of programs that strike the right balance on Indian and foreign laws. Even students are highly alert and informed about the latest in law on the international circuit due to the vast exposure available through international moot competitions. The information base of students on international law varies from dispute resolution topics to marine time law, humanitarian law and more.

Thus, it can be aptly said that establishment of law schools of global standards has become necessary today. Setting up law schools with world class infrastructure would also mean attracting students from across the world and the best faculty in law because even today sourcing good faculty with experience and expertise in the field isn’t easy. The law schools for long have been facing issues in acquiring or sourcing qualified faculties, not only in India but abroad as well. But, these issues can be resolved by offering better incentives and promotion of institutional initiatives and legal education reforms mentioned above.

As the possibilities of international interactions increase with time, law schools need to get all set to match-up. This includes activities like setting up a legal database for reference to the students from across the world and keeping it updated consistently, conducting knowledge exchange programs with legal education colleges worldwide and more.

Having said that, realizing all these reforms is not child play and requires mammoth funding. Hence, creating philanthropic initiatives for acquiring funds becomes one of the preliminary steps to be taken in the direction of raising the legal education bar in India.

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